Thursday, 30 January 2014

Survival: Making Fire

When it comes to starting fires in the wild, there are always different ways to make fire, today we will explore the best five ways to make fire without matches or lighters.
For all of the methods below, you will need a tinder nest to nurture the sparks and/or embers you create into a flame. In order to create friction and maintain a flame, you will need to use extremely dry wood.

1. Using Batteries and Steel Wool
  1. Make a tinder nest out of any dry plant material that easily catches fire. You can use dry grass, leaves, small sticks, and bark. This nest will be used to create a flame out of the spark you create with the battery and steel wool.
  2. Find a battery and locate the battery terminals. The terminals are the two circular receiving prongs located on the top of the battery. Any battery voltage will work, but 9-volt batteries will ignite the quickest.
  3. Take your steel wool and rub it on the battery terminals. The finer the steel wool, the better for this process.
  4. Continue to create friction by rubbing the steel wool on the batteries. This process works by creating a current through the tiny steel wires that then heat up and ignite. Another way to do this is to take a 9-volt battery and a metal paperclip and rub the paperclip on both battery terminals at the same time to create sparks. This is similar to how the wires in light bulbs and toasters ovens operate.
  5. Blow gently on the steel wool as it starts to glow. This helps nurture the flame and encourages it to spread.
  6. Once the steel wool is glowing brightly, transfer the steel wool to your tinder nest quickly, continuing to blow lightly on the nest until the tinder ignites, creating a flame.
  7. Add increasingly larger pieces of dry wood to build your fire once the tinder nest has ignited into a flame and enjoy your fire.
1a. Using a AA battery and a gum wrap
  1. You need tinder and wood ready, a AA battery and a gum wrapper (the metallic kind).
  2. Cut or tear the gum wrapper into a thin strip
  3. Fold the strip in half, then at the fold carefully cut it at an angle to form a point but still leaving you with an intact strip.
  4. Now put the ends of the strip on each terminal of the battery, the shiny side facing the battery. At the part where the strip was narrowed down it will catch on fire.

2. Using Flint and Steel
  1. Again, build a tinder nest using dry plant material.
  2. Take your flint rock (a rock that emits sparks) and hold it between your thumb and forefinger. Allow about two or three inches of flint to extend past your grasp.
  3. Grab a piece of char cloth between your thumb and the flint. Char cloths are small squares of cloth that have been turned into easily combustible charcoal pieces. If you do not have any char cloth on hand, you can also use lightweight tree fungus.
  4. Take the back of a steel striker or the back of a knife blade (depending on which you have handy) and quickly scrape the steel against the flint. Continue to strike until sparks begin to form.
  5. Catch the sparks with your char cloth and continue the process until the cloth glows like an ember. Char cloths are specially designed to hold a glow without catching fire.
  6. Transfer the glowing char cloth to your tinder nest and gently blow on it to induce a flame.
  7. Begin to add increasingly larger pieces of wood to grow your flame into a fire.

3. Using a Magnifying Glass
  1. Notice whether or not there is enough sunlight to create a fire using this method. You generally need the sun to be unobstructed by clouds in order to utilize it with your magnifying glass. If you do not have a magnifying glass, eye glass lenses and binocular lenses work as well. Adding water to the lens allows you to create a more intense, focused beam of light.
  2. Build a tinder nest out of dry material and set it on the ground.
  3. Tilt the lens toward the sun until the lens creates a small circle of focused light on the tinder nest. You'll probably have to test out holding the lens at different angles to create the most focused beam of light possible.
  4. Hold the lens in place until the tinder begins to smoke and flame. Blow lightly on the tinder nest to nurture the flame.
  5. Begin to add increasingly larger pieces of dry wood to your tinder nest to create the fire size you desire.
 Note: This will also work with: water bottles and condoms!

3a. Using Coke Can and Chocolate Bar
  1. I saw this method in a documentary a while back ago and thought it was pretty impressive. You need is a soda can, a bar of chocolate, and a sunny day.
  2. Polish the bottom of the soda can with the chocolate. Open up your bar of chocolate and start rubbing it on the bottom of the soda can. The chocolate acts as a polish and will make the bottom of the can shine like a mirror. If you do not have chocolate with you, toothpaste also works.
  3. After polishing the bottom of your can, what you have is essentially a parabolic mirror. Sunlight will reflect off the bottom of the can, forming a single focal point. It’s kind of like how a mirror telescope works.
  4. Point the bottom of the can towards the sun. You’ll have created a highly focused ray of light aimed directly at your tinder. Place the tinder about an inch from the reflecting light’s focal point. After awhile you should have a flame.
Note: While I can not think of any time that I was in the middle of nowhere with a can of Coke and a chocolate bar, this method actually works!

4. Fashioning a Hand Drill
  1. Build a tinder nest out of any dry plant material. Again, be sure that the material can catch fire easily.
  2. Find a piece of wood to use as the base of your hand drill, otherwise known as a fire board. You will drill on this wood piece to create friction.
  3. Use a knife or any sharp object to cut a small, V-shaped notch in the center of your fire board. Make sure that your notch is just big enough to hold your spindle stick.
  4. Place small pieces of bark underneath the notch. The bark will be used to catch an ember from the friction between the spindle and fire board.
  5. Take your spindle stick, which should be a thin stick about two feet long and half an inch in diameter, and place it in the V-shaped notch in the center of your fire board.
  6. Hold the spindle stick between your two flat palms and begin to roll the spindle back and forth. Be sure to push the spindle stick firmly down into the fire board.
  7. Continue to roll the spindle quickly between your hands, pushing one hand forward and then the other, until an ember is formed on the fire board.
  8. Transfer the glowing embers to a small piece of bark. You should have already placed a few small pieces of bark next to the notch for this purpose.
  9. Place the bark containing the ember onto your tinder nest. Continue to blow gently on the tinder nest to fully transfer the ember and create a flame.
  10. Begin to add increasingly larger pieces of wood to maintain a larger fire. Be advised that this method takes a while to create a fire, and requires physical as well as mental determination.

5. Making a Bow Drill
  1. Again, make a tinder nest. Use any dry plant material you can gather.
  2. Find an object to use as a socket such as a stone or a heavy piece of wood. The socket will be used to put pressure on the spindle.
  3. Find a long, flexible piece of wood about the length of your arm. It is best if this piece of wood has a slight curve in it. This will serve as the handle of your bow.
  4. Make the string of the bow using any strong, abrasive material that can withstand a lot of friction. You might want to use a shoelace, a thin rope or string, or a strip of rawhide.
  5. Tie the string as tight as possible to each end of the bow handle. If there are not already natural notches in the bow wood to anchor the string, whittle small, straight notches into the wood in order to act as a groove for the string.
  6. Find a piece of wood to use as the base of your hand drill, otherwise known as a fire board, and cut a small V-shaped notch into the center using a knife or other sharp object.
  7. Place your tinder nest underneath the V-shaped notch. You want to have the tinder right next to base of the spindle so that you can easily create flames.
  8. Loop the bow string around your spindle stick one time. Make sure you do so in the middle of the bow string to create enough space to roll the string back and forth.
  9. Place one end of the spindle in the V-shaped notch in your fire board and then stack the socket on the top end of the spindle. Hold the socket with your non-dominant hand.
  10. Begin sawing the bow quickly back and forth, holding the curved, wooden part of the bow in your dominant hand. This will cause the spindle to spin (hence the name "spindle") and create heat at the base of the fire board.
  11. Continue to saw back and forth until you create an ember where the spindle meets the fire board. Make sure your tinder nest is close by.
  12. Gather the ember you created onto a piece of scrap wood and drop it into your tinder nest. You may just be able to slide the ember off of the fire board into your tinder nest.
  13. Blow on your tinder nest as you gradually add increasingly larger pieces of dry wood to create a fire.

Bonus: Cotton Ball Fire Starter
  1. One of the best hacks there is to make fire, since it is water proof, always lights incredibly easily, is an infallible additive for a tinder bundle (especially a damp one) and easily takes a spark directly from a ferro striker or metal match. Not only that, it can be used as an occlusive wound dressing, smokeless fuel for a hobo stove, to ease chapped lips and dozens of other things as well.
  2. To make your fire starters, you just need two ingredients – vaseline (petroleum jelly) and cotton balls. Any brand of petroleum jelly will work, just make sure it’s 100% pure petroleum jelly. For the cotton balls, check the package to be sure they are 100% cotton. Artificial fibres will not take a spark.
  3. Rubbing the Vaseline into a cotton ball is messy work. The fibers of the cotton ball pull apart some, and the Vaseline gets everywhere. A cleanest, easiest method is to put a scoop of Vaseline into a snack-sized ziplock bag, toss some cotton balls in, zip it up, then knead the Vaseline into the cotton balls.
  4. You want to get as much Vaseline in the cotton ball as you can without completely saturating the cotton ball. It’s very important to have some dry fibers available to take the flame, especially if you use a firesteel or magnesium rod.
  5. Finally you just need a spark either from rocks or better yet from a flint.
Note: This method requires saving the vaseline cotton balls either in a ziplock bag or in a small pills dispenser. Then you can carry it with you in your survival gear. When using Vaseline Cotton always be careful, as the melting gel can drop flame onto unintended surfaces.  

Final Thoughts
These are some of the methods to making fire without matches or lighters, there are many others. You should try to practice a couple a see which suits you best. Finally, please make sure that 1) you only have fire in designated areas and 2) there is no temporary fire ban in the region.

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Blog Editor and Owner: Luis Aparicio Fernandes (or Mikey) is a Business Expert and a Traveler based in London, UK. He is a member of The International Honor Society Beta Gamma Sigma due to his achievements in business. You can follow Luis on Google+, and LinkedIn.